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Los trabajos de preparacin se estn llevando a cabo desde 2005 y las primeras sueltas estn programadas para el 2009 cheap 500 mg glucophage_sr fast delivery. These projects have proved essential to avoid the potential extinction of the Iberian lynx in the wild and to stabilize both freeranging populations buy glucophage_sr 500 mg fast delivery. Nowadays, the Sierra Morena population continues to grow both numerically and in surface area at an annual basis. In fact, the number of lynxes has increased from 38 adults (individuals of more than oneyearofage) registered in 2001 to 95 in 2008. The Doana population remains stable and a translocation programme, with the ultimate goal of genetic and demographic reinforcement, is currently taking place. Also, in situ efforts are presently focused on the recovery of historical population nuclei through reintroduction programmes. Preparation works are being carried out since 2005 and the frst releases are scheduled to begin in 2009. Ke y w o R d s Recovery, genetic diversity, demographic reinforcement, reintroduction Fi g u r e 1. Legal protection for the Iberian lynx is granted by the Bern convention, and the protection of its habitat, the Mediterranean scrubland, is a considered a priority by the European commission (Habitat Directive 92/43). Although it is known that the Iberian lynx inhabited throughout the Iberian Peninsula, its distribution area suffered a 98% decline during the second half of the last century (Rodrguez et al. The Iberian lynx is a specialized predator, with more than 90% of its diet comprised of wild rabbits (GilSnchez et al. Mediterranean scrubland areas represent the optimal habitat for this species (Palomares, 2001; Palomares, this book a). Given this critical scenario, in early 2000 the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Environment began working on measures to avoid the Iberian lynx extinction. These included: 1) to attain an accurate knowledge of the actual distribution range of the species; 2) to carry out a monitoring programme of both rabbit and lynx populations; 3) to sign collaborative agreements with land owners; 4) to recover rabbit populations; 5) to control nonnatural causes of mortality; 6) to establish a captive population to help preserve current genetic diversity, and 7) to ensure support from the local people that inhabit near both wild populations.
Antimalarials Aminoquinolone antimalarials are relatively safe and well tolerated 500mg glucophage_sr free shipping. Although not studied in mor- 4 Scleroderma 159 phea glucophage_sr 500 mg low price, the use of combination antimalarial therapy, i. This may be a safe and worthwhile strategy in generalized morphea, but requires clinical studies. Other therapies The description of a large number of anecdotal therapies for morphea attests, in part, to their lack of efcacy. Phenytoin (200 mg /day) resulted in skin sofening within 23 months in 5 / 5 patients with linear disease (Neldner, 1978). Interestingly these patients all received concomitant vitamin D supplements, which may have contributed to the observed efects. Beneft was seen within 4 weeks of starting cyclosporine therapy (5mg/kg/day ta- pered to 1. It has also been used as an inductor treatment followed by methotrexate as maintenance treatment in a girl with linear morphea (Crespo et al. Some improvement has also been seen afer 3 months of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (5 g alpha-globulin / day 5 days, then monthly for 1 year) in a child with pansclerotic morphea (Wollina et al. Acitretin has been used with success in 9 pa- tients (Neuhofer and Fritsch, 1984) one of them a patient with psoriasis and morphea (Bilen et al. A single report suggests the efcacy of repeated treatment with a 585 nm pulsed dye laser (Eisen and Alster, 2002) but a case reported in 2009 of a patient with en coup de saber who was given an initial diagnosis of acquired port-wine stain and treated with pulsed dye laser presented with un- anticipated blistering because of the use of the laser (Kakimoto et al. Penicillin, used because of the possible association with borrelia infection, and a suggested efect on collagen 160 Cristin Vera Kellet, Catherine H. Dutz fbrillogenesis was also recently shown to reduce skin thickness in a child with linear dis- ease (Mohrenschlager et al. It has also been used in thirteen patients with morphea without occlusion for 4 months, showing that thick, well-established lesions responded more poorly in com- parison to other less thick and more erythematous ones (Stefanaki et al. Tere is one randomized, double-blind, emollient-controlled pilot study performed in 10 patients with 4 plaque morphea showing reduction in durometer and clinical feature scores (Krof et al.
Diabetic complications Hyperglycemia purchase glucophage_sr 500 mg on line, is the responsible of the development of diabetes complications as well buy glucophage_sr 500 mg cheap. Hy perglycemia damage is produced in cells in which glucose uptake is independent of insulin, which, similarly to what happens in beta-cells, explains that the cause of the complications resides inside the cells . Prolonged exposure to high glucose levels, genetic determinants of susceptibility and accelerating factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia participate in the development of diabetic complications. Moreover, the development and progression of damage is proportional to hyperglycemia, which makes the lowering of glucose levels the most important goal for preventing complications and treating diabetes. The main tissues affected by diabetes complications at the microvasculature levels are reti na, renal glomerulus, and peripheral nerves. Diabetes is also associated with accelerated atherosclerotic disease affecting arteries that supply the heart, brain, and lower extremities. Oxidative stress in diabetic complications Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes complications, both at the microvascular and macrovascular levels. Results derived from two decades of diabetes complications investigation point towards mitochondrial superoxide overproduction as the main cause of metabolic abnormalities of diabetes. Thus, all of the above reviewed pathways are involved in microvasculature and macrovasculature hyperglycemic damage . Microvascular complications Diabetic retinopathy: Diabetic retinopathy appears in most patients after 10 to 15 years after diabetes onset. Background retinopathy presents small hemorrhages in the middle layers of the retina, appearing as dots. Lipid deposition occurs at the margins of the hemorraghe, and microaneurisms (small vascular dilatations) and edema may appear. Proliferative retin opathy occurs when new blood vessels on the surface of the retina cause vitreous hemor rhage, and eventually, blindness. Sorbitol produced in this proc ess increases osmotic stress, which has been linked to microaneurysm formation, thickening of the basement membranes and loss of pericytes. As mentioned, diabetic patients, and particularly those with nephropaty, have lowered anti oxidant defenses.