By the “relative” reference standard we use (as do Sen and Coale and others) discount orlistat 60 mg fast delivery weight loss pills in walmart, there are missing women in the country of interest buy discount orlistat 120mg on line weight loss pills garcinia. The conceptual advantage of building mwB from the ﬁnest sub-groupings available is, of course, that we purge the totals of any change in disease composition, thereby allowing a cleaner comparison with mwA. Butthe disadvantage is, of course, that death information is simply not available over a full partition of the ﬁnest categories of diseases, so that there will be many omissions. As a related but distinct consideration, we note that (2) embodies another implicit assumption: that the death rate for men in the country of interest is somehow the “right” death rate, and that the female death rate is distorted (upwards). It is possible that both death rates are distorted: female upwards, male downwards. In that case, the reference female death rate would be higher, and this would scale down the number of missing women. Such a discussion about the appropriate functional speciﬁcation is related to a broader issue. How do we know that gender-based death rates are not somehow “naturally” different at different levels of development? The epidemiological transition suggests that they may well be, once aggregated over disease. But we have already seen that compositional effects are minimal: missing women aggregated disease by disease (with compositional changes removed) account for almost all of the grand total. That still leaves us with the rebuttal that relative death rates for each age and disease category might “naturally” vary with development. We would have to presume—at least for a sizable set of countries once poor, or poor countries today—that there is no gender discrimination. The reader may nevertheless insist on computations for “missing women” that rely on reference standards from other countries that are poor today, or from now-rich countries when they were poor. For instance, one can recompute missing women by age (extending Table 3) by using Latin American and Caribbean countries as the reference group.
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